It can be a great idea to attempt to improve Minecraft performance if you're running with low frames per second. Low FPS occasionally happens if you're using too many mods, an expensive shader, or have a low-end computer.
Use OpenJ9 on Minecraft
Have you heard about OpenJ9? OpenJ9 is a Java Virtual Machine implementation, used to run Minecraft, it is reportedly faster to run Minecraft on OpenJ9 than on Hotspot.
The Java Virtual Machine (JVM) plays an important role in running Minecraft, defining how work is done under the hood. Hotspot, the default one is also a great JVM, that's why it's good to do your tests.
Do the following steps to use OpenJ9:
- You can download and install OpenJ9 from Adopt Open JDK, but the version will change depending on your Minecraft version. If you're playing Minecraft 1.17.x+, download the OpenJ9 version 16, otherwise, download the OpenJ9 version 8. Note how when downloading from Adopt Open JDK, the OpenJ9 option has to be checked.
- Open the Minecraft Launcher
- Click on the Installations tab
- Hover with your mouse on the Minecraft installation you want to change to OpenJ9 and click on the three dots icon on the right, and Edit
- The settings for your Minecraft installation will open, on the bottom, click to expand More Options
- Where it says Java Executable, by default it will say "Use bundled Java runtime", click on Browse and navigate to the OpenJ9 folder. The default OpenJ9 path for OpenJ9 8 is
C:\Program Files\Semeru\jdk-8.0.302.8-openj9\, but your path could be similar.
- After navigating to the OpenJ9 folder, open the jre folder and then the bin folder, and select
javaw.exe, opening it to set as your Java Executable. Be aware that there are different files with similar names, javaw.exe has an icon.
- Save the installation settings
If you feel like OpenJ9 didn't help you, just remove the path from the installation settings.
If you play multiple Minecraft versions and you want to set OpenJ9 for all of them, just download both versions 8 and 16 and change the path for the installation accordingly.
If you get the Java version mismatch error after installing and setting OpenJ9, it is because you selected the bin folder javaw.exe instead of the one inside the jre and then bin folder, change the path in your installation settings and try again.
If you get the Java runtime incompatible error, then you are using the wrong version, remember to use OpenJ9 16 for Minecraft 1.17+ or OpenJ9 8 otherwise.
Allocate more RAM for Minecraft
This is a quick change that can improve performance a lot, by default your game will allocate up to 2GB RAM, this is a very low amount for some systems, if you have spare RAM, consider raising this value.
- On the Minecraft Launcher, click on the Installations tab and edit the installation you'll increase RAM for
- Click on More Options
- Where it says "JVM ARGUMENTS", at the start there are the letters:
- Change the 2 to the amount of RAM you want to allocate for Minecraft, for example: -Xmx4G for 4GB RAM, -Xmx8G for 8GB RAM, and so on
- Save the installation
Remember to not set it higher than your computer can handle, RAM is still needed for background tasks and the Operational System.
If you don't know how much RAM you can allocate, you can right-click This PC/My computer on the file explorer, click on Properties, and one of the information is the amount of RAM available, use something less than that.
Use OptiFine if possible
OptiFine can potentially improve Minecraft performance, so give it a try if you need these extra frames.
- Access the OptiFine download page
- Download OptiFine for the Minecraft version you want to play, if you don't see the version you want to play on your list, click on Show all versions
- Run the downloaded file and after the installation is done, you can use OptiFine from your launcher installations
Update your system
Make sure your OS is updated, and your graphics card driver is also updated. Minecraft uses OpenGL which can be greatly affected by your graphics card driver, having everything updated is always a plus and there are few risks in doing so.
When updating drivers make sure you use your manufacturer's website, you must download it from legitimate sources because there's a lot of shady websites for this topic.
If you don't know your manufacturer, download OpenHardwareMonitor and it should show you, although, for temperature, it shows the name of your computer components.
Turn down Minecraft graphics
It may look obvious but sometimes a setting is demanding too much from your system.
Minecraft graphics options are accessible from the main menu, click Options, and then Video Settings.
Here are things you can do to improve your performance, but that will impact graphics quality:
- Change Graphics to Fast or Fancy(if it's Fabulous!)
- Turn Smooth Lighting off
- Reduce Render Distance chunks
- Set Particles to Minimal
- Reduce EntityDistance
- Turn OFF Biome Blend
Settings that won't reduce graphics quality a lot:
- Turn VSync off
- Change Clouds to Fast
It may help to reduce Max Framerate to 60 or according to your monitor refresh rate.
Turn down OptiFine settings
You can access OptiFine exclusive settings in the same place you find the Minecraft regular ones. These settings are optimizations available if you're using OptiFine.
Settings that reduce graphics quality:
- Turn Dynamic Fov OFF
Quality settings, all reducing quality:
- Turn Emissive Textures off
- Turn Better Grass off
- Turn Custom Fonts off
- Turn Connected Textures to Fast or off
- Custom Sky off
- Custom Entity Models off
- Random Entities off
- Better Snow off
- Custom Colors off
Turn to Off as you want, some are very optional in the way they change graphics
- If you have a dedicated graphics card, and you use high render distances, turn Render Regions to ON
- Smart Animation ON
- Test Smooth FPS on and off to decide which one is better
- Chunk Updates: leave at 1, don't change
- Lazy Chunk Loading: Great when playing single-player
- Fast Render: An optimization, better on
- Fast Math: Another optimization, on
- Smooth World: Single-player optimization, on
- Dynamic Updates off
All Off for performance, tweak as you like
General tips for boosting performance
These work with any application, and it's no different for Minecraft
- Close background applications, some general use applications can take a lot of resources from your computer, this should be done only if your computer struggles to run the game. You can also press CTRL+SHIFT+ESC to open the task manager and see all applications running.
- If you want to spend money, detect the bottleneck of your computer, and upgrade
- Make sure Windows is running with the high-performance power plan, you can switch it by searching Change energy plan and selecting the high-performance one
If you use Minecraft mods it will help to remove some of them, especially if your performance has dropped since the installation of one of them.
Sometimes, if your computer is low-end, the way to go is, unfortunately, upgrading it or getting a new one.
If there is a great tip we're missing, please let us know! We choose the most impactful ways that should work for all players.